Undertaking by Kumon Asia & Oceania Pte Ltd


The Personal Data Protection Commission (the “Commission”) was notified by Kumon Asia & Oceania Pte. Ltd. (the “Organisation”) on 14 August 2023 of a personal data breach involving the unauthorised access and exfiltration of personal data (the “Incident”).

Investigations revealed that a malicious actor successfully established a Remote Desktop Protocol connection within the Organisation’s environment, by exploiting vulnerabilities and using compromised credentials.

After gaining a foothold in the environment, the malicious actor created unauthorised accounts to maintain access within the environment. The malicious actor then encrypted the Organisation’s files containing the personal data of 5,136 individuals. The types of personal data affected included the name, address, NRIC number, passport number, date of birth, contact information, photographs, and bank information.

Upon discovery of the Incident, the Organisation took prompt remedial actions. This included tightening the access controls to the IT infrastructure by restricting login attempts, discontinuing the use of end-of-support OS, limiting Remote Desktop Protocol connections to the Organisation exclusively to administrator accounts, resetting the privileged accounts and passwords, and enhancing endpoint protection while ensuring all systems were updated to the latest version.

Voluntary Undertaking

Having considered the circumstances of the case, the Commission accepted a voluntary undertaking (the “Undertaking”) from the Organisation to improve its compliance with the Personal Data Protection Act 2012 (the “PDPA”). The Undertaking was executed on 9 February 2024.

As part of the Undertaking, the Organisation will be implementing the following:

(a) Improve its firewall policy to limit access to the regional country network and external network;

(b) Implement Zero Trust Network Access (ZTNA) on the replaced network appliance to enable more granulated access control by services and users;

(c) Enable Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) to all accounts;

(d) Deploy and configure endpoint management software to enforce regular security patching on devices;

(e) Plan and conduct tabletop exercise to evaluate the robustness of its Incident Response Playbook;

(f) Develop Product Lifecycle Management to end the use of end-of-service/support life (EOSL) products;

(g) Perform an external vulnerability assessment to identify further vulnerabilities and remediate them; and

(h) Engage cybersecurity consultants to review its systems post remediation.

The Commission will verify the Organisation’s compliance with the Undertaking. If the Organisation fails to comply with any terms of the Undertaking, the Commission may issue a direction so as to ensure the Organisation’s compliance with the Undertaking.